Time  7 hours 32 minutes

Coordinates 6866

Uploaded July 25, 2015

Recorded July 2015

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near Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec (Canada)

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Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu is a city in Quebec, Canada, located in the Haut-Richelieu MRC in Montérégie1.
The decree of the population 2014 counts 94 636 inhabitants2, which makes it the second largest city in Montérégie behind Longueuil.

History
The beginnings: a colonization slowed down by a strategic role of defense (1666-1790)

In 1666, a first wooden fort, Fort Saint-Jean, was erected on the banks of the Richelieu River on the initiative of Alexandre de Prouville de Tracy3. A first parish, Saint-Jean-l'Évangéliste, was founded in 1667. It is named in honor of the evangelist Jean de Patmos and Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu, French cardinal and minister of Louis XIII3. It serves the urban core that was built inside the fortifications 4. A first urbanization outside the fort occurred around 1750 5, and the nascent village nucleus was consolidated between 1776 and 1786 by the massive arrival of Loyalists. A suburb is formed along the road leading to Chambly (today Richelieu Street), and it is named "The Rookery". At this time, we already find taverns, inns, craftsmen and stores 4. So this is a start of commercial activity for the future Richelieu Street. In 1787, the timber trade was liberalized and in 1794 the trade as a whole. Warehouses are then built along this road and wharves are thrown on the river 4. The port activity was completed, since 1776, by a shipyard on the site of the fort. Several military expeditions against the United States started from this point.6 In 1790, David Alexander Grant, Baron of Longueuil, renamed the city Dorchester and provided for a first orthogonal grid of 16 islets (four by four). These islets still exist today and are delimited from west to east by Laurier, Longueuil, Jacques-Cartier North, Champlain and Richelieu Streets and, from south to north, by Frontenac, Saint-Georges and Saint -Jacques, Saint-Charles and Foch. Subsequently, the port and commercial vocation of Richelieu Street is confirmed by the progressive establishment of civic institutions further west, on the second terrace, near the current Longueuil and Jacques-Cartier streets.

Growth and industrialization (1790-1876)
The city takes full advantage in the nineteenth century with the development of transport: the diligences from Montreal stop at the hotels of Richelieu Street, a path opens to the Eastern Townships in 1797 and a first bridge was built on the Richelieu in 1827, corner Saint-Charles and the Quai, replacing the ferry service established between Saint-Jean and Iberville by the Mott brothers from 1797. The trade between Canada and the United States causes to Saint John construction of the first Canadian railway in 1836, which connects the city to La Prairie, near Montreal. The Richelieu links Saint John and New York via Lake Champlain and the Hudson River. The Port of Saint John even ranks 4th in trade in Canada. In 1843, the activity intensified further with the inauguration of the Chambly Canal 7, which made the Richelieu navigable along its entire length. 4 Montreal and Saint John were then connected to the United States by rail as early as 1853. Port activities are decreasing in Saint-Jean to the detriment of Montreal, but several ceramics manufacturers, among others, are established along these routes. These factories have earned Saint John the nickname of the Canadian capital of pottery and ceramics. In June 1860 appears French Canada, one of the oldest French newspapers in America, which has never ceased to publish to this day. In 1876, a fire destroyed Rue Richelieu. It is totally rebuilt with the face we know today.

Growth and redefinition (1876 -...)
During the late nineteenth century and in the first half of the twentieth century, the city continued to grow, with the suburbs becoming neighborhoods. The advent of the Singer plant in 1906 marks the beginning of the true industrial diversification of Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, which is becoming more and more a regional capital. The opening of the Royal Military College of Canada in 1952 and the development of the Canadian Forces Base during the Second World War and in 1970 only confirmed the position of Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu as a garrison city. Today, Saint-Jean is still a city-center, offering jobs and services to the vast majority of its population. The proximity of Montreal increases the trend towards urbanization to the north-west of the city, and the economic poles follow this trend, to the detriment of downtown.
After a slight collapse in the early 1990s, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu now appears on a new path of prosperity, attracting more young families and industries each year. The tourism sector is also well developed thanks to the International Balloon Festival, the largest event of its kind in Canada.
The current municipality is the result of the merger, in 2001, of the towns of Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Iberville and Saint-Luc, the municipality of L'Acadie and the parish of Saint-Athanase.

Johannine chronology
• 1609. Champlain goes up the Richelieu5.
• 1666. The first Fort Saint-Jean is built by the Régiment de Carignan-Salières5.
• 1710. The lands where the town is nowadays are conceded to Baron de Longueuil5.
• 1747. The road from Saint John to La Prairie is built5.
• 1748. Fort Saint-Jean is rebuilt5.
• 1760. Fort Saint-Jean is deserted and burned during the night of August 29-30.
• 1764. Gabriel Christie and Moses Hazen buy the part of the Barony of Longueuil adjacent to the west bank of the Richelieu and the lordship of Bleury5.
• 1775. During a battle that took place on the site of the current Saint-Jean Golf Club, the American General Montgomery was repulsed by Captain De Lorimier5.
• 1775. November 3rd. Capitulation of Fort Saint-Jean against American troops after 45 days of siege5.
• 1776. Construction of the Iberville blockhouse. It was used to protect Fort Saint-Jean8.
• 1797. A ferry connects the two banks of the Richelieu between Saint-Jean and Iberville5.
• 1814. Construction at Saint-Luc of Blairfindie barracks8.
• 1816. Construction of St. James Church5.
• 1826. Construction of the first bridge between Saint-Jean and Iberville, the Jones Bridge5.
• 1832. Félix-Gabriel Marchand, prime minister of Quebec from 1897 to 1900, was born in Saint-Jean5.
• 1836. Inauguration of the first Canadian railway, which connects the Richelieu to the St. Lawrence between Saint-Jean and La Prairie5.
• 1839. Construction of the current buildings of Fort Saint-Jean, located around the former Place d'Armes8.
• 1843. Opening of the Chambly Canal, between Saint-Jean and Chambly5.
• 1845. Creation of the parish municipality of Saint-Jean-l'Évangéliste5.
• 1848. Creation of the municipality of the village of Saint-Jean5.
• 1850. Foundation of the Académie de Saint-Jean, which will become the Cégep Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu in 19685.
• 1856. The municipality of the village of Saint-Jean receives its status of Ville5.
• 1858. Construction of the Market Square building5.
• 1860. Foundation of the newspaper "Le Franco Canadien", by Charles Laberge, Félix-Gabriel Marchand and Isaac Bourguignon. This periodical will merge with French Canada in 18955.
• 1868. The Gray Nuns form what will become the first hospital in Saint-Jean5.
• 1872. The first aqueduct of the city is built5.
• 1873. Foundation of the bank of Saint-Jean, which will close in 19085.
• 1876. A great fire destroys Richelieu Street and the east side of Champlain Street in downtown5.
• 1887. The Bell Telephone Company establishes itself in Saint-Jean and installs the first telephone service5.
• 1911. Foundation of the Saint John Seminary (later incorporated into Cégep).
• 1916. Inauguration of the Gouin Bridge, replacing the Jones Bridge5.
• 1916. The City of Saint-Jean obtains its Cité5 status.
• 1922. Foundation of the Saint-Jean School of Nursing5.
• 1933. Erection of the diocese of Saint-Jean-de-Québec, of which Saint-Jean becomes the seat5.
• 1952. Foundation of Royal Military College Saint-Jean5.
• 1959. Creation of the municipal library5.
• 1966. Inauguration of the Félix-Gabriel Marchand Bridge5.
• 1968. Creation of the Cégep Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu5.
• 1970. The City of Saint-Jean and the Parish Municipality of Saint-Jean-l'Évangéliste merge to form the Ville de Saint-Jean, which became Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu in 19785.
• 1984. Creation of the Haut-Richelieu Hot Air Balloon Festival, which became in 2001 the International Balloon Festival of Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu. This festival attracts no less than 300,000 people every year and spreads the city around the world9.
• 2001. Merger of the towns of Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Saint-Luc and Iberville, the municipality of L'Acadie and the parish of Saint-Athanase.
• May 2011: The city is affected by floods in the Lake Champlain Basin and the Richelieu River10.
October 2014: Islamic State sympathizer Martin "Ahmad" Rouleau overthrew two soldiers in a parking lot, killing one. He was shot a few minutes later by the municipal police11. This event occurred two days before a shooting was provoked in the Parliament of Ottawa.

Road network
The city of Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu is located at the confluence of many roads, highways and railways.
Highway 35 is the cornerstone of the Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu road network. It has 6 interchanges leading to the city, exits 39 (route 104, former exit 3), 42 (route 133, former exit 6), 43 (route 223, 45 (route 219, rue Pierre-Caisse), 47 ( Route 104, boulevard Saint-Luc) and 50 (Chemin Saint-André) Once completed in 2017, it will connect Saint-Jean directly to Vermont, the United States, and to Montreal and the Cantons-de-Nord highway. Route 104, boulevard Saint-Luc, is located in the former town of Saint-Luc, serving the area under a four-lane urban boulevard except for a small stretch near the church. to the west to La Prairie, the 104 forms a multiplex with the 35 between exits 47 and 39, then continues east towards Mont-Saint-Grégoire.Route 223, boulevard du Séminaire, is the main commercial artery of Saint-Jean, crossing the city from north to south along the west bank of the Richelieu River, while Route 219 leaves a city by the south-west to Napierville, while it is the continuation of rue Pierre-Caisse, as well as the Grand-Bernier road. In addition, Route 133 is Chemin des Patriotes, located north of Iberville towards Chambly along the east bank of the Richelieu River. It leaves the city from the south to Henryville and the Canada-US border, and is an extremely busy route, as it is the only link between St. John's and the United States.
(See https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu)


Plattsburgh
Plattsburgh is a city in the United States, home of Clinton County, in the North Country (New York) region of New York State. With nearly 20,000 residents, it is the largest city in the state on the Adirondack Coast along Lake Champlain. With its suburbs, Plattsburgh (town), the metropolitan area has nearly 32,000 inhabitants. The village of Plattsburgh was founded in 1785 and takes its name from Zephaniah Platt, one of the first landowners in the area.

Geography


The Saranac River at Verdant Park.
Plattsburgh is located on the west shore of Lake Champlain in northeastern New York State. The Saranac River flows through the city to Lake Champlain. The territory of the municipality occupies an area of ​​17.1 km2 of which 13.1 km2 are terrestrial and 4.0 km2 are water surfaces.

town planning
Plattsburgh is served by Highway 87, which connects the Canadian border (Autoroute 15 from Montreal to the state capital, Albany), Federal Highway 9 and State Highway 22 crosses it in a north-south direction. that state roads 3, 190 and 374 are east-west.
The nearest major city in the United States is Burlington, Vermont, which can be reached bypassing Lake Champlain or by ferry from Cumberland Head to Grand Isle, Vermont, and by a seasonal ferry from Port Kent, 16 km south of city. The closest metropolis is Montreal, Canada, about 100 km to the north.
Plattsburgh International Airport, formerly the USAF Air Base, was completed in February 2007. It offers flights to Boston by US Airways. Allegiant Air and Myrtle Beach Direct also offer flights to several destinations in Florida and Myrtle Beach. FedEx and UPS offers a cargo service.
Plattsburgh has a regional bus service through Clinton County Public Transportation. It is also serviced by Greyhound and Adirondack Trailways for intercity connections but the city does not have a bus station, stopping at service points, such as motels, along main roads. However the city has a train station with Amtrak service between Montreal and New York.

History
New France
In 1609, the discoverer and first governor of New France, Samuel de Champlain, went to the Lake Champlain Valley. The region is occupied by Iroquois Indians who are opposed to the tribes of the St. Lawrence Valley. The French take sides with them and many military expeditions are conducted to pacify the region. Calm finally returns to the Treaty of Peace Montreal of 1701. The region is mostly a reservoir of furs for Montreal merchants and a territory of evangelization for missionaries. It also becomes the border region between New France and New England. The powerful Fort Carillon is built further south to repel any invasion to the heart of French territory.

English conquest and American war of independence
The Seven Years' War is the last chapter in Britain's struggle for supremacy in North America. On July 8, 1758, the French troops under the command of the Marquis de Montcalm defeated a British opponent superior in number to the battle of Fort Carillon. The following spring the British took control of the Great Lakes and threatened Quebec. The French can not adequately defend the region and the fort is destroyed before the withdrawal of the troops not to leave it to the British troops who were to attack it.
With the Treaty of Paris of 1763, all of New France passed into the British fold which transformed all the territories west of Appalachia into Indian territories in order to limit the expansion of the American colonies which are already beginning to stir. The British did little in the region because by 1774, it was the declaration of independence of the United States.
The naval battle of Valcour Island during the American Revolutionary War took place off Plattsburgh in Lake Champlain in 1776 and ended with a British victory. However, the war turns to the advantage of the Thirteen colonies and ends in 1783. The region thus passes under control of the new nation by the Treaty of Paris.

Foundation
Zephaniah Platt receives a title deed from George Clinton, the British governor, in the area after the British conquest. He finally founded the city in 1785, in agreement with the new American authorities. Most of the inhabitants, however, are of French origin and divide the city according to their traditions. The streets are named after the daughters of prominent traders and politicians, famous people like Champlain and Montcalm. Thus, unlike the English tradition of calling Main Street Main Street, Palttsburgh's main street is named "Cornelia", later to become Cornelia. The village is incorporated in 1815 and becomes a city in 1902.

XIXth century
In the nineteenth century Plattsburgh developed as a port on Lake Champlain. During the War of 1812, the naval battle of Lake Champlain took place just off the city. Despite superior enemy firepower, US naval forces manage to defeat a British squadron. This victory allowed them to cut the naval supply lines of the British troops and forced them to retreat to Canada.
The population diversifies and in 1861, a first synagogue, Temple Beth Israel, is built1. The Plattsburgh Normal School was built in 1889. It burns in 1929 but is rebuilt in 1932. It will become the State University of New York (SUNY) in Plattsburgh.

Twentieth century


Bombardier B-47 with "Pride of the Adirondacks", one of two aircraft exhibited at Clyde A. Lewis Aeronautical Park
In the second half of the nineteenth century, Plattsburgh will gain an important base of the United States Air Force during the Cold War. Its strategic position near the major centers of the East Coast of the United States and in subsidence of the Adirondack Mountains allowed conditions of optimal use. It was the site of the Strategic Air Command's first East Coast Wing, including the 380th Bombing Squadron, a Flight Replenishment Squadron and an Aerospace Squadron. B-52 Stratofortress and FB-111 bombers and tankers were stationed there. Its huge runways were designated as one of four landing sites for the US Space Shuttle.
On the 1st, the 556th Strategic Missile Squadron began operations there. The twelve liquid fuel Atlas F missiles were hidden in silos around the base. Ten of these were on the other side of the lake in Vermont. The squadron was put on alert during the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962 and was dismantled in 1965, while the new, more serviceable, solid fuel Minuteman missiles were deployed to other bases.
The air base was closed on 29 September 1995 by cuts in military spending after the end of the Cold War. The lands were surrendered to the community and the Plattsburgh Airbase Redevelopment Corporation (PARC) attracted civilian industries and airlines. The airport serves mostly northern New York State and even tries to compete with Montreal's Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport, about 100 km to the north, offering discount flights to various destinations.

21st century
During the 1980s and since the economic crisis of 2008, the Canadian dollar is strong against the US dollar and many Canadians come to buy in Plattsburgh, where taxes are lower. Since the majority of these come from Quebec, bilingual English / French is quite common. The city's economy now largely depends on the industries around the former air base, Bombardier Transport2 and Nova Bus3 plants assembling trains, subway trains and buses for the US market, as well as the paper mill. Georgia-Pacific.

Administration
The municipal council consists of a mayor elected by universal suffrage and six councilors each elected in a district. The Republican and Conservative Donald Kasprzak has been mayor since 2007, following his re-election in 2010 with 77.4% ahead of Kathryn McCleery of the Working Families Party.
Composition of the municipal council
2010-2014
Mayor Donald Kasprzak
District 1 Tim Carpenter
District 2 Mark Tiffer
District 3 George Rabideau
District 4 Jim Calnon
District 5 Chris Case
District 6 Chris Jackson

Demography
In the 2010 census, the city had 19,989 people, 7,600 residences and 3,473 families. The inhabitants are 89.88% Caucasian, 3.5% African American, 0.38% Native American, 2.77% Asian, 3.4% of Latin American origin and the rest is of mixed or mixed origin. . Average income per residence was US $ 28,846 and the median per family was US $ 46,337.

Economy
Tourism is a major economic activity in Plattsburgh, with the Cumberland Bay State Park and the municipal beach located on Cumberland Sound, north-east of the city.

Culture
Plattsburgh has several cultural institutions and historic sites including the Plattsburgh Public Library, Feinberg Library, Crab Island Memorial, Samuel de Champlain Monument, McDonough Memorial, Kent-Delord House, Samuel de Champlain History Center, the Clinton County Historical Museum, the War Museum of 1812, the Champlain Valley Transportation Museum, the Plattsburgh State University Art Museum, the Srand Arts Center and the Strandt Theater. The film Frozen River, directed in 2007 by Courtney Hunt, is shot in Plattsburgh.
Plattsburgh has three newspapers: The Clinton County Free Trader Today with a circulation of 15,000 and merged with the North Countryman in 20105, The Plattsburgh Press Republican with some 17,000 copies6 and the Plattsburgh Burgh with about 8,000 copies7. Plattsburgh has two television stations, WPTZ, channel 5, affiliated with NBC and WCFE-TV, channel 57, a member of PBS.
(Cf. https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plattsburgh)
Intersection

Km 0 JCT Autoroute 35 vs rue Champlain

Km 0 JCT Autoroute 35 vs rue Champlain
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Km 2 Écluse

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Km 2 Écluse

Km 2 Écluse
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Km 2.5 Pont Saint-Jean

Km 2.5 Pont Saint-Jean
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Km 3.1 Marina Saint-Jean

Km 3.1 Marina Saint-Jean
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Km 3.5 JCT Frontenac vs Jacques-Cartier

Km 3.5 JCT Frontenac vs Jacques-Cartier
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Km 8.1 JCT Jacques-Cartier Sud vs Route 223

Km 8.1 JCT Jacques-Cartier Sud vs Route 223
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Km 10.4 Jardinière Bessette

Km 10.4 Jardinière Bessette
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Km 16.2 Route 223 Sud

Km 16.2 Route 223 Sud
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Km 22 St-Paul-de-l'Île-aux-noix

Km 22 St-Paul-de-l'Île-aux-noix
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Km 24.3 Fort-Lennox

Km 24.3 Fort-Lennox
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Km 29.6 Culture du soya

Km 29.6 Culture du soya
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Km 31.6 Lacolle

Km 31.6 Lacolle
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Km 33.4 Culture du maïs

Km 33.4 Culture du maïs
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Km 39.1 Douanes US

Km 39.1 Douanes US
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Km 40.4 Rouses Point

Km 40.4 Rouses Point
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Km 41.5 Marina Rouses Point

Km 41.5 Marina Rouses Point
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Km 42.8 Quai

Km 42.8 Quai
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Km 46.6 Lac Champlain

Km 46.6 Lac Champlain
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Km 51.9 JCT Route 9

Km 51.9 JCT Route 9
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Km 56.6 Chazy River

Km 56.6 Chazy River
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Km 57.8 Lac Champlain

Km 57.8 Lac Champlain
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Km 59.7 Rivière

Km 59.7 Rivière
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Km 60.7 JCT Lake Shore vs North Farm

Km 60.7 JCT Lake Shore vs North Farm
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Km 63 Lac Champlain

Km 63 Lac Champlain
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Km 64.4 Lac Champlain

Km 64.4 Lac Champlain
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Km 66.3 Bombard

Km 66.3 Bombard
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Km 68.3 Lac

Km 68.3 Lac
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Km 69.8 Bateaux

Km 69.8 Bateaux
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Km 75.4 Point Au Roche

Km 75.4 Point Au Roche
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Km 78.4 JCT Point Au Roche vs Route 9

Km 78.4 JCT Point Au Roche vs Route 9
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Km 81 Chevaux

Km 81 Chevaux
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Km 81.9 Plattsburgh

Km 81.9 Plattsburgh
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Km 83.5 Théâtre Cumberland

Km 83.5 Théâtre Cumberland
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Km 86.7 JCT Margaret vs Cumberland

Km 86.7 JCT Margaret vs Cumberland
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Km 86.7 Plattsburgh

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