Time  6 hours 4 minutes

Coordinates 4297

Uploaded August 9, 2016

Recorded August 2016

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318 f
16 f
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32.08 mi

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near Spring Park, Illa del Príncep Eduard (Canada)

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Prince Edward Island or PEI (English: Prince Edward Island or PEI, Scottish Gaelic: Eilean a 'Phrionnsa, Mi'kmaq: Epekwitk (Francis-Smith)) is the smallest of Canada's provinces in terms of area and population. In 1864, Prince Edward Island hosted the Charlottetown Conference that led to Canadian Confederation in 1867. Nevertheless, it did not become a Canadian province until 1873. In the 2011 census, one it has a population of 140,204. At 24.7 people per square kilometer, it is the most densely populated province in Canada.

Climate
The climate of Prince Edward Island is humid continental that is, there is a big temperature difference between the cold months and the hot months. During the winter, the temperature can go down to -28 ° C.

Fauna and flora
The forest covers 50% of the area but the primary forest, consisting mainly of spruce, balsam fir and red maple, occupies only 290,000 hectares. Three centuries of colonization, along with forest diseases and fires, have almost wiped out the original forest of beech, yellow birch, maple, oak and American white pine1.
Prince Edward Island has a wide variety of wildlife including beaver, muskrat, mink, red fox, squirrel, snowshoe hare, striped skunks and coyotes. The territory is also rich in marine species.
Conservation of the environment has become an important issue. The removal of hedgerows, the use of chemical fertilizers, mechanization and agricultural overproduction in general are causing significant erosion of arable land leading to the silting up of ports and watercourses1. Some reforestation activities have been carried out1.
The North Atlantic right whale, one of the rarest whale species, was considered a rare visitor to the St. Lawrence until 1994. Since then, there has been a dramatic increase in numbers: off Perce in 1995, a progressive increase in all regions since 19984, around Cape Breton5 since 2014 and in Prince Edward Island, 35 to 40 whales were observed in 20156.


Natural Resources, Industry and Services
The island is poor in natural resources. No significant deposits of ore have yet been discovered but there are traces of coal, uranium and vanadium1. Natural gas is present in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, northeast of the Island, but is not large enough to be exploited1. Only sand and gravel are mined, but poor low quality production does not even meet provincial needs1. The forest is little exploited1.
Half of the island is very fertile land while arable land covers 90% of the area1. Until the 1950s, most farmers used horses, but the end of this practice freed up vast land previously used for fodder cultivation. From 1951 to 1996, the number of farms increased from 10,137 to 2,217 while the area under cultivation decreased by 39%. The average farm size has increased from 44 hectares to 119 hectares, while farmers' profit margins have dropped from 50% to 25% due to the increased cost of the equipment1. Governments are trying to curb the rural exodus while farms are becoming more expensive to start. Although agricultural production is declining, clearing continues. Agricultural production was valued at $ 317 million in 2000, of which $ 154 million was from potatoes1. The island has indeed a climate and a soil well adapted to this culture, and in particular for the production of seed potatoes. Three-quarters of the harvest is exported to 15 countries and the remainder is sold as is in North America or processed into frozen products such as french fries1. Tobacco, planted since 1959, is the second most important crop, despite the high cost and complexity of its production1. The province has 330 dairy farms and a herd of 16,000 cows producing 90 million liters of milk annually, 90% of which is processed into by-products, such as evaporated milk, generally for export1. 30,000 cattle are also sent to the slaughterhouse annually, although the price of meat fluctuates and production is down1. Pig farming is almost as important.
Fishing is the second primary industry on the Island. There were 6,500 fishermen and fish harvesters in 1994, working on 1,500 boats and creating 2,000 direct jobs in factories that processed fish valued at $ 139 million in 2000.1 The fishery is mostly coastal and the lobster is the most lucrative species1. Other molluscs are also caught, including scallops, oysters, clams and mussels. Oysters, whose production is concentrated in Malpeque Bay, are reputed1. Harvesting Irish moss, from which carrageenan is extracted, is an important industry west of the island1.
The manufacturing industry is mainly focused on the processing of fishery and agricultural products. This sector of the economy provided 4,800 jobs in 1997 while the value of production was valued at $ 1.1 billion in 20001. Major manufacturers include Cavendish Farms, DME International and McCain Foods. The government is trying to attract other types of industries, without any real success1. Some companies are still worthy of note include JD Irving, who operates a shipyard in Georgetown.
More and more people are working in services; governments employed 6,000 people in 19991.

Energy
Islanders are the most expensive to pay for electricity in Canada1. Summerside has a municipal distribution network while Maritime Energy distributes electricity to the rest of the island. Most of the electricity is imported from NB Power (New Brunswick) or Emera Energy Systems (Nova Scotia) via submarine cable. However, Maritime Energy has two thermal generating stations, one in Charlottetown and one in Borden-Carleton, operating at peak hours or in the event of a power outage and having an installed capacity of 104 megawatts (MW). Up to 54 MW can also be purchased from wind farms at Cape North or Eastern Kings Wind Farm.
Fuel oil is also very expensive, which encourages more and more people to heat their homes with wood. Although forests are not as exploited as in the nineteenth century, this industry creates more than 400 jobs.

Transport
Charlottetown Airport.
Main article: Transportation to Prince Edward Island.
The Confederation Bridge connects the island to the mainland. 12.9 km long, it is the longest bridge in the world to cross a stretch of frozen water in winter1. One ferry connects the island to Nova Scotia and another to the Îles de la Madeleine (Quebec).
An intercity bus service connects major cities, while Charlottetown has a public transit system, the Charlottetown Public Transit, consisting of 7 bus lines.
Charlottetown Airport offers scheduled flights to Halifax, Toronto, Montreal, Ottawa, Detroit and Boston. A second, smaller airport is in Summerside.
The railway was dismantled in 1989, after 114 years of existence. It has been converted into a bicycle path, the Confederation Trail, which consists of a portion of the Trans Canada Trail.

(See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prince-Edouard Island)


Charlottetown (English pronunciation: [ʃaʁlɔttawn], in English: [ʃɑrlətˌtaʊn]) is a Canadian city, capital of the province of Prince Edward Island; it is also the largest city on the island and the county seat of Queens County. The city is named in honor of Queen Charlotte, consort of King George III. Charlottetown was incorporated as a village in 1855 and designated a city in 1885. Charlottetown is host to what is now called the Charlottetown Conference in 1864, the first step in the process leading up to Canadian Confederation. For this, the city adopts the motto Cunabula Foederis, "Cradle of Confederation". In 1995 the city merged with the communities of Sherwood, Parkdale, Hillsborough Park, West Royalty and East Royalty. Charlottetown had 34,562 residents in 20111 and Metropolitan Area 64,472, slightly less than half of the province's 140,204 population1).

Physical geography
Situation
Charlottetown is located near the geographic center of the island, in Queens County. The city is 55 kilometers east of the Confederation Bridge and 60 kilometers north of the Wood Islands ferry terminal. The city is bordered on the south by the Charlottetown Harbor, formed by the confluence of the Hillsborough River, which runs along the city to the east, from the North River, which passes to the west, and the West River. . Charlottetown Harbor communicates with Hillsborough Bay, four kilometers to the south. It then empties into the Northumberland Strait, 15 kilometers to the south.
Charlottetown is crossed by the Trans-Canada Highway. It is also served by Routes 2, 15 and 25. The city is served by Charlottetown Airport as well as intercity buses.

According to the 2011 census, 5 the city of Charlottetown had 34,562 residents. Charlottetown is dominated by people with European ancestors, but the African and Chinese population is growing.
According to the 2006 Census6, the city of Charlottetown had 32,174 residents, of which approximately 45.5% were men and 54.5% were women. Children under five made up about 4.3% of Charlottetown's population. Compared to 4.9% for Prince Edward Island, and 5.3% for Canada.
In 2006, 17.2% of Charlottetown residents were of retirement age (65 and over) compared to 14.9% for Prince Edward Island and 13.7% for Canada; the median age is 41.3 years compared to 40.8 years for Prince Edward Island and 39.5 years for all of Canada.

Population Census
1851 4,717
1861 6.706
1871 8,807
1881 11,485
1891 11,373
1901 12,080
1911 11,198
1921 12,347
1931 12,361
1941 14,460
1951 15,887
1961 18,318
1971 19,133
1981 15,282
1991 15,396
2001 32.245
2006 32,174
2011 34,562

According to the 2001 Census, the median household income for the city is CAD 52,996 and the average income for a family is $ 77,008. Men have a median income of $ 42,519 compared to $ 28,136 for women. The per capita income for the city is $ 29,710. 12.2% of the population and 8.0% of families are below the poverty line. Of the total population, 9.6% of those under 18 and 10.3% of those over 65 live below the poverty line.
Between the 2001 and 2006 censuses, the population of Charlottetown decreased by 0.2%, compared to a 0.4% increase for Prince Edward Island. The population density of Charlottetown is on average 725.8 inhabitants per square kilometer compared to the provincial average of 23.9 inhabitants per square kilometer for Prince Edward Island.
The Census Division area includes Charlottetown and the surrounding villages of Stratford and Cornwall, as well as the rural areas of east-central Queens County, that is, Lands 31, 34, 35, 36, 48, 49 and 65.
According to the 2001 Statistics Canada census, more than nine out of ten people in metropolitan Charlottetown thought they were Christians. This is 91.7% Christians (46.0% Roman Catholic, 42.6% Protestant and 3.0% other Christian mostly Orthodox), 7.3% without religion and other religions that count less than 1.0% including Muslims, Buddhists and Jews.

Transport
The central location of Charlottetown in the province has made it a turning point for transportation. Historically, the city was the center of the province's rail network.
The development of the road network at the end of the 20th has made the city the focal point of several major roads in the province. Highway 1, the Trans-Canada Highway, partially divides the northern suburbs, connecting with Riverside Drive, the Hillsborough River Bridge and the North River Causeway Bridge on a limited access highway linking the city with the Confederation Bridge in the west and the terminus of the Northumberland Ferry in the east. Route 2, the main east-west highway of the province intersects Route 1 in the city.
Charlottetown Airport is the only airport in the province with a passenger schedule that serves 280,000 passengers per year7.
The T3 Transit is the last reincarnation of several tests since the 1970s to implement a means of public transport. Fixed-time buses have been operating in the municipality since 2005.
The absence of public transportation for several decades in Charlottetown forced people to become addicted to cars, with the municipal government building three massive storeys of garages in the historic area to service the cars of downtown workers. The city has statistically more taxis than other Canadian cities on average because taxis were the last means of transportation for people without cars. Taxis in Charlottetown use area-based pricing as opposed to meters and automobiles do not have a protective partition between the driver and the customer.

(See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlottetown)


Borden-Carleton (Officially Borden) is a community in Prince Edward Island, Canada. In the 2006 census, there was a population of 7861. At the 2011 census, the population had gone down to 7502 inhabitants.
The village was created by the merger, on April 12, 1995, of the original village of Borden (an incorporated village) and the farming community of Carleton. Borden Village opted to demote its village status to reduce its tax base with the completion of the Confederation Bridge and the closure of the Atlantic Marine ferries.

Geography
The community of Borden-Carleton is located on the edge of the Northumberland Strait, where the Confederation Bridge ends.


Demography
The village had 786 inhabitants in 2006 against 829 in 1996, a decrease of 5% in 10 years1.
Confederation Bridge Project [edit | change the code]
The project was named the Confederation Bridge and when it opened on June 1, 1997, ferry service closed after 70 years of daily service; ships were transferred to other locations or sold and wharves, terminals and other facilities were dismantled.
After the completion of the Confederation Bridge, Borden's economy dimmed as the labor influx left the village and the province and some licensed and retired ferry workers relocated. The federal government is providing a Fixed Link Adjustment Fund that has helped develop a commercial complex for tourists on the former locomotive depot, now known as the Gateway Village.
The fund also paid for the development of the village industrial park to have new manufactures and today, the majority of residents of Borden are employed in a local factory or the tertiary sector or in the tourism sector. The major employers are McCain Foods (a potato factory opened in 1992 in the northern part of Carleton), Master Packaging (subdivision of JD Irving Limited), Silliker Glass (a glass supplier and aluminum manufacturer Kawneer), an abattoir for oxen (operated by Co-op Atlantique) and Transcontinental Printing (division of Transcontinental Media).
There is a government effort to find a use for the old factory built in Amherst Head abandoned by SCI since the completion of the construction of the Confederation Bridge.

(Cf. https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borden-Carleton)
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Km 51.6 Borden-Carleton

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